Vynohradiv(Ukrainian: Виноградів, Rusyn: Cивлюш (Syvlyush), Russian: Виноградово (Vinogradovo)) is a city in western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. It has 25,200 inhabitants (2004). It is center of Vynohradiv Raion.
It was first mentioned in 1262 by the name Zceuleus. Its Hungarian name comes from the word szőlő meaning grape, since the area is an important wine district. The town was one of the oldest in Ugocsa comitatus, and was inhabited by winemakers of the royal court. In 1329 King Charles Robert granted privileges to the town, which became the seat of the comitatus (the city held this rank until the Treaty of Trianon was signed).
In the Battle of Nagyszőllős (January 23, 1662) János Kemény, the ruling prince of Transylvania was defeated and killed by the Ottoman army allied with Prince Apafi. In 1717 most of the citizens of the town were killed by an invading Tartar horde.
By 1880 the population was about 4,400 (with 500 native Romanians). In 1881 a secondary school was opened. In 1944 the Hungarian men by the Soviets; 70% of them died. Many of them were collaborators with the Arrow Cross Regime in Hungary because this city was part of Hungary after the 1938 dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. This city in historical Slovakia despite being in modern Ukraine. This city had a Jewish ghetto in 1944 which was at its busiest from May to June 1944 when most of the Jews of this section of northern Transylvania were deported to Auschwitz to be gassed shortly after arrival. Jews from the area typically spent about 2 weeks before being deported. Conditions were extremely cramped where many families lived together in the same room which was purposely done to cause suffering and disease. In 1944, the Soviets gave this city to Ukraine. However, it is historically, been the county seat of Ugocsa Varmegye (a large county administrative unit under Austro-Hungarian and later Hungarian administration til 1920 and then Czechoslovak from 1920 to 1938). Jews were deported from what is today parts of Romania (just north of present day Satu Mare, as well as from this area.
In 1910 it had a population of 7,811 (5943 Hungarians, 1266 Ruthenians (Rusyns) and 540 Germans). Today 15% of the population is Hungarian.
The city was called Sevlush (the Rusyn transliteration of szőllős) in 1946, then became Vinogradovo in the early 1960s. Following Ukrainian independence after the fall of the Soviet Union, the city was named Vynohradiv. Vinogradovo, Vynohradiv, and Nagyszőllős all mean 'Grape City' in Russian, Ukrainian, and Hungarian respectively.
- Ugocsa Castle (ruins; 13th century). It was first mentioned in 1308. In 1315 King Charles Robert attacked and destroyed it. In the 15th century the area was given to monks of the Franciscan order, they built a monastery there, which was inhabited until 1558. There is a small 14th century chapel south of the ruins. - Perényi Castle. It was built by the Perényi noble family from 1399, later rebuilt in Baroque style into a mansion. - Franciscan church and monastery (built in 1744, rebuilt in 1889). - Our Lady's Church (13th century, rebuilt in the 15th century in Gothic style, restored in the early 20th century. Its furniture was destroyed after 1945. The Church got it back in 1989. - Franciscan monastery (founded in the 15th century). In 1556 local Protestants attacked the monastery, killed the monks and threw the body of St. John Capistrano into a well. The Perényi family invited monks of the order to the town again, but the monastery burnt down in 1747. Its current building was erected in 1889. - Protestant church (Neoclassical, 1828). - Old county hall (now the building of the Zsigond Perényi Secondary School) and statue of Perényi (1906).
- Composer Béla Bartók lived in the house opposing the mansion between 1889 and 1892; his mother worked here as a teacher. Bartók held his first concert here in the county hall. - József Csorba doctor, physicist was born here in 1789. - János Majos Kuruc captain was born here. - Imre Révész painter was born here in 1859. He is buried in the local cemetery. - Endre Nagy writer, stage director was born here in 1877.
Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, transliterated: Ukrayina) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south. The city of Kiev (Kyiv) is both the capital and the largest city of Ukraine.